Benchmark users: A simulated user that runs the specific dialog benchmark scenario in a loop, repeating the actions with a think time of 10 seconds between each user interaction.

Average response time:
Simplified, the average amount of time between the sending of a request to the SAP system and its return to the requestor upon completion. For dialog benchmarks the average response time must be below one second (previously two seconds). Technically the response time is calculated from the throughput as shown by the enqueue monitor. The response time does not include time spent on the user interface.

When comparing older and newer benchmark results be aware that the maximum response time of dialog benchmarks was reduced to <1s in May 2009.

The amount of work that can be performed by an SAP system in a given period of time.

Order line items:
Throughput value of the SD benchmark. A line item is the part of a document containing information of a single item. It always includes an amount, an account number, the assignment to debits or credits and further specifications that depend on the business transactions to be posted. For the SD benchmark, each sales order document contains 5 line items.

Dialog steps:
User action that provokes a change of a user's state by requesting a new screen.

The SAP Application Performance Standard (SAPS) is a hardware-independent unit that describes the performance of a system configuration in the SAP environment. It is derived from the Sales and Distribution (SD) Benchmark, where 100 SAPS is defined as 2,000 fully business processed order line items per hour. In technical terms, this throughput is achieved by processing 6,000 dialog steps (screen changes), 2,000 postings per hour in the SD benchmark, or 2,400 SAP transactions.

In the SD benchmark, fully business processed means the full business process of an order line item: creating the order, creating a delivery note for the order, displaying the order, changing the delivery, posting a goods issue, listing orders, and creating an invoice.

CPU utilization:
The average use of the CPU resources available to the system in the benchmark high load phase, as reported by the operating system. High CPU utilization suggests that the benchmark has been tuned to achieve maximum throughput. Exercise caution in extrapolating system performance based on CPU utilization significantly lower than 100%: e.g., a benchmark result achieved at 80% CPU utilization may mean that some other system component, such as memory, disk, or network, has become a bottleneck. This is why you cannot expect to achieve better performance. Also in modern processor architectures, the percentage of CPU utilization reported by the operating system does not necessarily reflect the percentage of the achievable throughput. For an interpretation of the CPU utilization in a benchmark certificate please contact the respective hardware partner.

When comparing older and newer benchmark results note that all SAP standard application benchmarks are Unicode from June 2010 onwards. For some benchmarks, the switch to Unicode was earlier (e.g. January 2009 for the SD benchmark), or they were Unicode from the start. For details see configuration defaults

Hardware configuration:
The benchmark certificates describe the total hardware configuration of a benchmark setup, irrespective of whether it was used during the benchmark or not. The actual configuration during the benchmark (# of cores actually used, hyperthreading switched off, etc).may be different. Note that you can requested further detail (see "Certification number") on the configuration during the benchmark run.

This refers to the kind of partitioning, virtualization, or other technology that may have been used to run more than one operating system image on a physical server. The CPU utilization indicated here is within the virtualized environment.

Certification number:
You can request can further information on a benchmark from the hardware vendor or SAP. Quote this certification number.